Scandura on Leadership
Scandura, Terri A. “Leadership: Core Concepts.” Essentials of Organizational Behavior: An Evidence-Based Approach. Thousand Oaks: SAGE, 2016. 23-54. Print.
In this chapter on leadership, Scandura defines leadership as a particular process and differentiates between management and leadership (24-25). Scandura compares transactional leadership, which is based one exchange, with transformational leadership, which is based on “the four I’s”: “idealized influence,” “inspirational motivation,” “intellectual stimulation,” and “individualized consideration” (26-28). Scandura describes the leader-member exchange model of leadership which emphasizes the relationship between leaders and followers by looking at relationships to bosses, mentors, and other authorities (28-34).
Scandura explains the importance of trust in organizations as well as types of trust and what can be done when trust is broken (35-38). In a discussion of power and influence, Scandura notes that influence is “power in use” while power can take various forms, including forms of position power (coercive power, reward power, and legitimate power) and personal power (expert power and referent power) (38-41). Scandura describes the relative effectiveness of influence tactics leaders may use, including rational persuasion, apprising, inspirational appeals, consultation, exchange, collaboration, ingratiation, personal appeals, and other tactics (42-43). Scandura discusses organizational politics, the importance of ethical leadership, and authentic and servant leadership, which are recent ethical leadership approaches that involve self-awareness, morality, and positive relationships (44-48).